which statement describes the spanish colonization of north america

  • which statement describes the spanish colonization of north americawhat can eating to much takis do

    [38], Much of what is now the Southern United States was claimed by Spain, some of it at least explored by the Spanish starting in the early 1500s, and some permanent settlements established. These began a movement for colonial independence that spread to Spain's other colonies in the Americas. Spaniards waged a fifty-year war (ca. I think the Span, Posted 2 years ago. Brown, Kendall W., "The Spanish Imperial Mercury Trade and the American Mining Expansion Under the Bourbon Monarchy," in, Van Ausdal, Shawn, and Robert W. Wilcox. The Spanish Empire would expand across the Caribbean Islands, half of South America, almost all of Central America and most of North America. Question. Mounted indigenous warriors were significant foes for Spaniards. [25][26][27][28] Not until the conquest of the Incan Empire, which used similar tactics and began in 1532, was the conquest of the Aztecs matched in scale of either territory or treasure. Benedict. The conquest of central Mexico sparked further Spanish conquests, following the pattern of conquered and consolidated regions being the launching point for further expeditions. The empire was formed by and under the command of Marshal Jean-Bdel Bokassa, military dictator and president of the Central African Republic, on 4 December 1976. Lawyers for these cases were funded by a half-real tax, an early example of legal aid for the poor. [150] With the 1992 commemoration (and critique) of Columbus, more cinematic and television depictions of the era appeared, including a TV miniseries with Gabriel Byrne as Columbus. I've read that the reasons for Spanish conquest could be summed up with three words: "Gold, Glory, God.". Their role in judicial affairs and in overseeing the implementation of royal legislation made their decisions important for the communities they served." [74], Beginning in 1522 in the newly conquered Mexico, government units in the Spanish empire had a royal treasury controlled by a set of oficiales reales (royal officials). [147] With only a small labor force to draw on, ranching was an ideal economic activity for some regions. Among the most notable expeditions are Hernando de Soto into southeast North America, leaving from Cuba (153942); Francisco Vzquez de Coronado to northern Mexico (154042), and Gonzalo Pizarro to Amazonia, leaving from Quito, Ecuador (154142). Most agriculture and ranching supplied local needs, since transportation was difficult, slow, and expensive. Mercury is a neurotoxin, which damaged and killed human and mules coming into contact with it. Important ones include Santiago de Guatemala (1524); Puebla (1531); Quertaro (ca. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. The governors exercised judicial ordinary functions of first instance, and prerogatives of government legislating by ordinances. Many institutions established in Castile found expression in The Indies from the early colonial period. Although the structure of the indigenous cabildo looked similar to that of the Spanish institution, its indigenous functionaries continued to follow indigenous practices. 1494: Columbus arrives in Jamaica. Direct link to d042's post how do I Define the term , Posted 3 years ago. Ovando fitted out Magellan's voyage of circumnavigation, and became the first President of the Council of the Indies in 1524. Enslaved Africans were imported to Spanish territories, primarily to Cuba. Another important export product was cochineal, a color-fast red dye made from dried insects living on cacti. Hernn Corts requested Franciscan and Dominican friars be sent to New Spain immediately after the conquest of Tenochtitlan to begin evangelization. Posted 4 years ago. Spaniards and Indigenous parents produced Mestizo offspring, who were also part of the Repblica de Espaoles. Columbus made four voyages to the West Indies as the monarchs granted Columbus vast powers of governance over this unknown part of the world. Direct link to trell2267's post Why didn't the spanish ju, Posted 3 years ago. The establishment of large, permanent Spanish settlements attracted a whole range of new residents, who set up shop as carpenters, bakers, tailors and other artisan activities. How did spain handle all the inflation? The Aztecs under Spanish Rule. It consisted of a number of opposing views about the way natives were to be integrated into colonial life, their conversion to Christianity and their rights and obligations. 37 Questions Show answers. Records of the conquest of central Mexico include accounts by the expedition leader Hernn Corts, Bernal Daz del Castillo and other Spanish conquistadors, indigenous allies from the city-states altepetl of Tlaxcala, Texcoco, and Huexotzinco. In the Indies, corregimiento initially functioned to bring control over Spanish settlers who exploited the indigenous populations held in encomienda, in order to protect the shrinking indigenous populations and prevent the formation of an aristocracy of conquerors and powerful settlers. Timeline showing some of the major events and the earliest European colonies in North America. Florida was supposedly named because it was spotted on Easter, or the Festival of Flowers as it was commonly called in Spain. [45] In 1565, Spain established a settlement in St. Augustine, Florida, lasting in one way or another until modern times. A mixed-race casta population came into being during the colonial era. In the following years the conquistadors and indigenous allies extended control over Greater Andes Region. Direct link to Michael Fulcher's post How did spain handle all , Posted 3 years ago. Who had? 5, p. 453. A well-connected settler in Cuba, Hernn Corts received authorization in 1519 by the governor of Cuba to form an expedition of exploration-only to this far western region. After the collapse of the Taino population of Hispaniola, Spaniards began raiding indigenous settlements on nearby islands, including Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica, to enslave those populations, replicating the demographic catastrophe there as well. Although during the rule of Charles V, the Spanish Empire was the first to be called "The empire on which the sun never sets", under Philip II the permanent colonization of the Philippine Islands made it demonstrably true. In Peru, silver was found in a single silver mountain, the Cerro Rico de Potos, still producing silver in the 21st century. The conquest of the Aztec Empire involved the combined effort of armies from many indigenous allies, spearheaded by a small Spanish force of conquistadors. [98][99] The history of the Guaran has also been the subject of a recent study. The first expansion of territory was the conquest of the Muslim Emirate of Granada on 1 January 1492, the culmination of the Christian Reconquest of the Iberian peninsula, held by the Muslims since 711. Language links are at the top of the page across from the title. What factors lead to their demise? In Mexico during the sixteenth-century Chichimec War guarded the transit of silver from the mines of Zacatecas to Mexico City. Within this frontier the city of Concepcin assumed the role of "military capital" of Spanish-ruled Chile. - The Pueblo Revolt occurs in 1680. American colonies, also called thirteen colonies or colonial America, the 13 British colonies that were established during the 17th and early 18th centuries in what is now a part of the eastern United States. [153] A 2010 film, Even the Rain starring Gael Garca Bernal, is set in modern Cochabamba, Bolivia during the Cochabamba Water War, following a film crew shooting a controversial life of Columbus. The pope was the head of the Catholic Church, but the granting of the Patronato Real to the Spanish monarchy gave the king the power of appointment (patronage) of ecclesiastics. [7] Expeditions required authorization by the crown, which laid out the terms of such expedition. [82], The conquest of the Aztec and Inca empires ended their sovereignty over their respective territorial expanses, replaced by the Spanish Empire, and indigenous religious beliefs and practices were suppressed and populations converted to Christianity. Spain also produced impressive art at this time. "Cook, Sherburne F. 1976b. The Spanish founded San Sebastin de Uraba in 1509 but abandoned it within the year. While chartered by the Crown, English colonization was funded by joint-stock companies, groups of investors eager for profits. ", Weber, David J. The Libertadores (Spanish and Portuguese for "Liberators") were the principal leaders of the Spanish American wars of independence. As the indigenous populations declined, the need for corregimiento decreased and then suppressed, with the alcalda mayor remaining an institution until it was replaced in the eighteenth-century Bourbon Reforms by royal officials, Intendants. Direct link to David Alexander's post Leaving native people alo, Posted 5 years ago. The Spanish did not find any gold in the Americas, but they did establish large plantations B. [29], Between 1537 and 1543, six[citation needed] Spanish expeditions entered highland Colombia, conquered the Muisca Confederation, and set up the New Kingdom of Granada (Spanish: Nuevo Reino de Granada). 142-43. Direct link to David Alexander's post The Spanish moved into th, Posted 3 months ago. Charles revoked the grant in 1545, ending the episode of German colonization. Dressing, J. David. Potos (founded 1545) was in the zone of dense indigenous settlement, so that labor could be mobilized on traditional patterns to extract the ore. An important element for productive mining was mercury for processing high-grade ore. Peru had a source in Huancavelica (founded 1572), while Mexico had to rely on mercury imported from Spain. By contrast, the indigenous population plummeted by an estimated 80% in the first century and a half following Columbus's voyages, primarily through the spread of infectious diseases. Aguirre subsequently wrote a letter to Philip II bitterly complaining about the treatment of conquerors like himself in the wake of the assertion of crown control over Peru. Spanish colonization after Columbus accelerated the rivalry between Spain and Portugal to an unprecedented level. Q4 . as Spaniards expanded their control over territories and their indigenous populations. The second factor was the disease. Corregidores collected the tribute from indigenous communities and regulated forced indigenous labor. [59], The Spanish brought new crops for cultivation. As the colonial economy became more diversified and less dependent on these mechanisms for the accumulation of wealth, the indigenous noblemen became less important for the economy. Since their appointments were for life or the pleasure of the monarch, they had a continuity of power and authority that viceroys and captains-general lacked because of their shorter-term appointments. [8][9] For the conquest era, two names of Spaniards are generally known because they led the conquests of high indigenous civilizations, Hernn Corts, leader of the expedition that conquered the Aztecs of Central Mexico, and Francisco Pizarro, leader of the conquest of the Inca in Peru. The other was the presence or absence of an exploitable resource for the enrichment of settlers. A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies. Cuman in Venezuela was the first permanent settlement founded by Europeans in the mainland Americas,[14] in 1501 by Franciscan friars, but due to successful attacks by the indigenous people, it had to be refounded several times, until Diego Hernndez de Serpa's foundation in 1569. In the 1480s, Pope Sixtus IV had granted Portugal the right to all land south of the Cape Verde islands, leading the Portuguese king to claim that the lands discovered by Columbus belonged to Portugal, not Spain. The crown attempted to curb Spaniards' exploitation, banning Spaniards' bequeathing their private grants of indigenous communities' tribute and encomienda labor in 1542 in the New Laws. [119] Their functions were governing the respective municipalities, administering of justice and being appellate judges in the alcaldes menores' judgments,[120] but only the corregidor could preside over the cabildo. [121] However, both charges were also put up for sale freely since the late 16th century. One was the presence or absence of dense, hierarchically organized indigenous populations that could be made to work. The Jesuits resisted crown control, refusing to pay the tithe on their estates that supported the ecclesiastical hierarchy and came into conflict with bishops. As with many other royal posts, these positions were sold, starting in 1677. [citation needed] In Peru, the indigenous Amerindian pre-contact population of around 6.5 million declined to 1 million by the early 17th century. Showing the indigenous sides are Xicotencatl, a leader of the Spaniards' Tlaxcalan allies, and Aztec emperors Moctezuma II and Cuitlahuac. The two powers vied for domination through the acquisition of new lands. Q1: Option B. St. Augustine was the name of the first Spanish colonial settlement in Florida. He wrote many petitions, treatises, and books on the subject of the Spanish conquest of the Americas.His most famous works included the Historia apologtica (Apologetic History) and the Brevsima relacin de la destruccin de las Indias (A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies).The former was written as an introduction to a proposed . [101] In 2007 Pope Benedict XVI issued a less sweeping apology for the wrongs done in the conversion of indigenous peoples. Image credit: Map of de Coronado's route through Mexico and the Southwest of the modern United States. Europeans imported enslaved Africans to the early Caribbean settlements to replace indigenous labor and enslaved and free Africans were part of colonial-era populations. Survivors continued to travel among indigenous groups in the North American south and southwest until 1536. 1, pp. Powers, Stephen. [101], During the early colonial period, the crown authorized friars of Catholic religious orders (Franciscans, Dominicans, and Augustinians) to function as priests during the conversion of indigenous populations. Put in chronological order the following events that happened during the Spanish exploration of North America. Tribute goods in Mexico were most usually lengths of cotton cloth, woven by women, and maize and other foodstuffs produced by men. [80], The indigenous populations in the Caribbean became the focus of the crown in its roles as sovereigns of the empire and patron of the Catholic Church. The British Empire offered support, wanting to end the Spanish monopoly on trade with its colonies in the Americas. "Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)" in. The crown asserted is authority and sovereignty of the territory and vassals it claimed, collected taxes, maintained public order, meted out justice, and established policies for governance of large indigenous populations. The region overseen by the archbishop was divided into large units, the diocese, headed by a bishop. [34], Venezuela was first visited by Europeans during the 1490s, when Columbus was in control of the region, and the region as a source for indigenous slaves for Spaniards in Cuba and Hispaniola, since the Spanish destruction of the local indigenous population. These governorates, also called as provinces, were the basic of the territorial government of the Indies,[67] and arose as the territories were conquered and colonized. The first settlement of La Navidad, a crude fort built on his first voyage in 1492, had been abandoned by the time he returned in 1493. The Viceroyalty of Per was established in 1542. Spanish colonists settled in greatest numbers where there were dense indigenous populations and the existence of valuable resources for extraction. [53] The capitals of Mexico and Peru, Mexico City and Lima came to have large concentrations of Spanish settlers and became the hubs of royal and ecclesiastical administration, large commercial enterprises and skilled artisans, and centers of culture. [83] These elites played an intermediary role between the Spanish rulers and indigenous commoners. The Spanish conquest. Spanish conquerors holding grants of indigenous labor in encomienda ruthlessly exploited them. [113], Spanish settlers sought to live in towns and cities, with governance being accomplished through the town council or Cabildo. The end of the Habsburg dynasty in 1700 saw major administrative reforms in the eighteenth century under the Bourbon monarchy, starting with the first Spanish Bourbon monarch, Philip V (r. 17001746) and reaching its apogee under Charles III (r. 17591788). Ida Altman, S.L. Viceroys served as the vice-patron of the Catholic Church, including the Inquisition, established in the seats of the viceroyalties (Mexico City and Lima). The Plan of Iguala was part of the peace treaty to establish a constitutional foundation for an independent Mexico. In Mexico, refining took place in haciendas de minas, where silver ore was refined into pure silver by amalgamation with mercury in what was known as the patio process. In the twentieth century, Garatuza's life was the subject of a 1935 film[165] and a 1986 telenovela, Martn Garatuza. [48] The crown later sent him to Asuncin, Paraguay to be adelantado there. There were few permanent settlements, but Spaniards settled the coastal islands of Cubagua and Margarita to exploit the pearl beds. His fall from power is viewed as an example of the weakening of the crown in the mid-seventeenth century since it failed to protect their duly appointed bishop. Smaller islands claimed by Spain were lost to the English and the Dutch, with France taking half of Hispaniola and establishing the sugar-producing colony of St-Domingue, as well as also taking other islands. Other notable historical figures in the production are Malinche, Corts cultural translator, and other conquerors Pedro de Alvarado, Cristbal de Olid, Bernal Daz del Castillo. [159], The epic journey of lvar Nez Cabeza de Vaca has been portrayed in a 1991 feature-length Mexican film, Cabeza de Vaca. I think the Spanish had monarchy. Until his dying day, Columbus was convinced that he had reached Asia, the Indies. "Questionnaires from the Trial of the Second Marqus del Valle for Conspiracy, 1566" in, Fernndez de Recas, Guillermo S. Cacicazgos y nobiliario indgena de la Nueva Espaa. In areas of dense, stratified indigenous populations, especially Mesoamerica and the Andean region, Spanish conquerors awarded perpetual private grants of labor and tribute to particular indigenous settlements, in encomienda they were in a privileged position to accumulate private wealth. Held in the Colegio de San Gregorio, in the Spanish city of Valladolid, it was a moral and theological debate about the colonization of the Americas, its justification for the conversion to Catholicism and more specifically about the relations between the European settlers and the natives of the New World. Viceroyalties were the largest territory unit of administration in the civil and religious spheres and the boundaries of civil and ecclesiastical governance coincided by design, to ensure crown control over both bureaucracies. 1875. The first mainland explorations by Spaniards were followed by a phase of inland expeditions and conquest. Through such methods, the Spaniards came to accumulate a massive force of thousands, perhaps tens of thousands of indigenous warriors. [65] In addition, the Casa de Contratacin took charge of the fiscal organization, and of the organization and judicial control of the trade with the Indies. A key to this was the cooperation between most indigenous elites with the new ruling structure. During the early era and under the Habsburgs, the crown established a regional layer of colonial jurisdiction in the institution of Corregimiento, which was between the Audiencia and town councils. Settlements/Geography [141][142][143] In Mexico, the labor force had to be lured from elsewhere in the colony, and was not based on traditional systems of rotary labor. Disease and overwork, disruption of family life and the agricultural cycle (which caused severe food shortages to Spaniards dependent on them) rapidly decimated the indigenous population. There were a variable number of councilors (regidores), depending on the size of the town, also two municipal judges (alcaldes menores), who were judges of first instance, and also other officials as police chief, inspector of supplies, court clerk, and a public herald. [70], After the end of the period of conquests, it was necessary to manage extensive and different territories with a strong bureaucracy. The Taino population on Hispaniola went from hundreds of thousands or millions the estimates by scholars vary widely but in the mid-1490s, they were practically wiped out. Inquisitional powers were initially vested in bishops, who could root out idolatry and heresy. Hispanic American Historical Review 50.4 (1970): 645-664. The utter devastation caused by the white man was literally incredible, and not until the population figures are examined does the extent of the havoc become evident. They forbade the maltreatment of natives, and endorsed the forced resettlement of indigenous populations with attempts of conversion to Catholicism. [79], The Valladolid debate (15501551) was the first moral debate in European history to discuss the rights and treatment of a colonized people by colonizers. For the colony's continued existence, a reliable source of labor was needed. I: Crowds and social movements have lasting and more significant effects and last for a longer period of time than fads and fashions. By 1763 the English had established dominance in North America, having defeated France and Spain in the French and Indian War. Ore was crushed with the aid of mules and then mercury could be applied to draw out the pure silver. "The 1539 inquisition and trial of Don Carlos of Texcoco in early Mexico.". New York: Cambridge University Press 1994. sfn error: no target: CITEREFBrading1971 (, Kuethe, Allan J. The Spanish conquest of Yucatn, the Spanish conquest of Guatemala, the conquest of the Purpecha of Michoacan, the war of Mexico's west, and the Chichimeca War in northern Mexico expanded Spanish control over territory and indigenous populations stretching thousands of miles. There were few Spaniards and huge indigenous populations, so utilizing indigenous intermediaries was a practical solution to the incorporation of the indigenous population into the new regime of rule. [30] South of the Bo-Bo River the Mapuche successfully reversed colonization with the Destruction of the Seven Cities in 15991604. Cattle multiplied quickly in areas where little else could turn a profit for Spaniards, including northern Mexico and the Argentine pampas. Spanish land in America was divided into small units, and each unit was run by a(n . Why did many conquistadores fail to establish colonies in the New World? The salary of officials during the Habsburg era were paltry, but the corregidor or alcalde mayor in densely populated areas of indigenous settlement with a valuable product could use his office for personal enrichment. He was subsequently tried and convicted of cruelty to both natives and colonists and banished from New Mexico for life.[52]. Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Which of the following was a primary feature of social relations established in the Spanish colonies in the Western Hemisphere?, In their colonization of the Americas, the Spanish used the encomienda system to, Which of the following statements about the population of North America at the time of Christopher Columbus' voyages is . The vast majority of the decline happened after the Spanish period, during the Mexican and US periods of Californian history (18211910), with the most dramatic collapse (200,000 to 25,000) occurring in the US period (18461910). The Spanish network needed a port city so that inland settlements could be connected by sea to Spain. Don Martn was sent into exile, while other conspirators were executed. Settled from the south were Buenos Aires (1536, 1580); Asuncin (1537); Potos (1545); La Paz, Bolivia (1548); and Tucumn (1553). The crown established the audiencia in 1549. There is no fabrication here, What are some specific examples of political systems they had. But the indigenous allies had much to gain by throwing off Aztec rule. [35][36], Argentina was not conquered or later exploited in the grand fashion of central Mexico or Peru, since the indigenous population was sparse and there were no precious metals or other valuable resources. Practices like forced labor and slavery for resource extraction, and forced resettlement in new villages and later missions were common during the first decades of colonization. Expeditions continued to explore territories in hopes of finding another Aztec or Inca empire, with no further success. These could be sold in markets and thereby converted to cash. Farriss, Nancy Marguerite. Charles sought to be elected Holy Roman Emperor and was willing to pay whatever it took to achieve that. which of the following is a true statement? This is most clearly seen in conquest of Mexico with the alliance of the Nahua city-state of Tlaxcala against the Aztec Empire resulting in lasting benefits to themselves and their descendants. Mining regions in both Mexico were remote, outside the zone of indigenous settlement in central and southern Mexico Mesoamerica, but mines in Zacatecas (founded 1548) and Guanajuato (founded 1548) were key hubs in the colonial economy. [158] A major production in Mexico was the 1998 film, The Other Conquest, which focuses on a Nahua in the post-conquest era and the evangelization of central Mexico. North America's Indigenous peoples preserved their cultures and dignity through this period, despite facing violent dispossession by the colonists; enslaved Africans did as well, amid the . For Spaniards, the fierce Chichimecas barred them for exploiting mining resources in northern Mexico. It was the first step in a long campaign that took decades of fighting to subdue the mightiest empire in the Americas. New foods greatly benefitted Europeans, whose population increased, while infectious diseases . There was surface gold found in early islands, and holders of encomiendas put the indigenous to work panning for it. i think those dresses look horrid on toughs poor little girls. During the 1500s, Spain expanded its colonial empire to the Philippines in the Far East and to areas in the Americas that later became the United States. The Spanish expansion has sometimes been succinctly summed up as being motivated by "gold, glory, God," that is, the search for material wealth, the enhancement of the conquerors' and the crown's position, and the expansion of Christianity to the exclusion of other religious traditions. So, the correct options that match the statements quoted above are A and B. Horses that escaped Spanish control were captured by indigenous; many indigenous also raided for horses. Columbus had promised the crown that the region he now controlled held a huge treasure in the form of gold and spices. Terraciano, Kevin. From the Spanish viewpoint, their source of labor and viability of their own settlements was at risk. The labor of dense populations of Tainos were allocated as grants to Spanish settlers in an institution known as the encomienda, where particular indigenous settlements were awarded to individual Spaniards. Queen Isabel put an end to formal slavery, declaring the indigenous to be vassals of the crown, but Spaniards' exploitation of indigenous labor continued. In 1500 the city of Nueva Cdiz was founded on the island of Cubagua, Venezuela, followed by the founding of Santa Cruz by Alonso de Ojeda in present-day Guajira peninsula. woman dies in car crash houston, Homes For Rent By Owner In Little Rock, Ar, Keppra And Dextromethorphan, Articles W

  • which statement describes the spanish colonization of north americasample medical letter from doctor to immigration

    Boas-vindas ao . Esse é o seu primeiro post. Edite-o ou exclua-o, e então comece a escrever!

Tem alguma recomendação de livro?